The Alp Language¶
The language name is still a work in progress
Why use Alp ?¶
The purpose of the Alp language is to provide a very simple, yet expressive interface for designing algorithms. In theory, the features in the Alp language can be used to represent any and all possible computations. That is to say, it is ‘Turing Complete’. The goal here is to enable design of algorithms, outside the context of any one programming language. Alp can therefore be viewed as an attempt to create a formal system for defining and testing algorithms, that can then be implemented in some programming language X. For that reason, it is not a language to be used to build programs with (though technically it can). It is a language made to be read more than it is run.
This document is meant to be read from start to finish. As there are some explanations of things encountered early on that are deferred to later sections.
Core language features¶
The core features of the language can be split into two subgroups. That is:
- Data representations
- Data transformations
That’s it. Nothing else. The entirety of the Alp language is representing and performing operations on data. Again, the reason for this simplicitly is to make the language as abstract as possible. The closer it is to the minimal definition of a Turing Complete language, the simpler it is to understand and implement in any other language. The following sections cover these two aspects of the language, in order.
Alp single line comments are denoted with
// and mutliline comments are denoted with
//-- for opening and
--// for closing
Data representation in algol can be done in three ways:
The Alp language currently involves only one type of number. That is, Natural numbers (ℕ), which can be shown represented as literals:
1 // Natural 27 // Natural 0 // Natural -1 // Not a valid literal
More number sets will be added to the language specification in the future.
Objects in Alp are all mutable, and can be defined as shown:
SOME_VAR <- // some expression that yields a value
The capital lettering for the name of the variable is not need. It is an encouraged convention however, as it helps distinguish between variables and other language constructs we will see later.
SOME_VAR is the name of our variable. Variable names must begin with either a letter, dash or underscore. All variables can be re-assigned to a new value with the same notation:
SOME_VAR <- // some expression
It is also possible for a variable to reference itself when being reassigned:
SOME_VAR <- SOME_VAR
The above assignment does nothing, clearly, but it serves to show the fact stated above. A somewhat more useful example can be shown as:
SOME_VAR <- SOME_VAR + 1
This would be equivalent to incrementing
SOME_VAR by 1.
Integer operations, like the addition operator, shown above are covered later in the language.core.control.operators section.
At this point in time, the Alp Interpreter supports . Support for strings and other numeric types, however, is a priority and will be added very very soon.
Support for other constructs such as recursion (explicitly) will also be added to the Alp Interpreter at a later date.
Alp arrays are mutable int-indexed lists of that can contain an arbitrary number of variables. The syntax for indexing, or setting the value of an object in an array is as shown:
ARR[x] <- // some expression
The syntax when creating a new array is as follows:
ARR_NAME <- [1..n] // Creates a new empty array of size n
Where n is the length of the array to be created. Remember that algo arrays are 1-indexed, as readibilty is number one.
ARR_1 <- 4 // ARR_1 did not previously exist. This creates it and assigns its element x the value 4. ARR_1 <- ARR_2 + 5 // ARR_2 does not exist. The program terminates with an error at this point.
Arrays can be passed around and operated on as a whole as variables are. Given that the operations and algorithms using them as input use them as arrays.
Variables and Arrays are are all that is needed to represent data in Alp. Next comes Control Structures.